Don Pedro de Barberana y Aparregui (1579–1649) was a member of Philip IV’s privy council. He was named honorary postmaster of the realm and, by royal decree, governor of his native town of Briones. Prominently displayed on his doublet and cape is the red cross of the Order of Calatrava, founded in 1164 as a defense against the Moors and subsequently a privilege of the aristocracy. Don Pedro was knighted in 1630, and Velázquez must have painted the portrait soon after he returned from his first trip to Italy in 1631.
Since 1981, the portrait is located in the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas.